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BERR Evidence 2008
Retrofitting Odense Denmark to clean piped heat
Clean heat provision
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Published Papers

Consulting Engineers, Heating, Domestic Hot Water, Heat Networks, CHP and Building Services

NEWS: Orchard Partners Featured in CIBSE Journal click link below to read:


Documents related to CIBSE Journal article:

BSRIA Guide CHP for Existing Buildings

BSRIA Guide Variable-Flow Water Systems

CHP how its COP is a Function of Flow and Return Temperatures

Design and specification work to maximise fuel use using condensing boilers, condensing CHP and fully variable flow heat networks for new build, retrofitting and improving the performance of existing installations. Emphasis on supply of low CO2 piped heat from CHP electric heat pumps, renewable heat and solar thermal. Objective to maximise CO2 displacement by balancing investment in fabric improvement and low carbon heat sources to meet clients domestic hot water base load and their ventilation heat loads.

Analysis and resolution of heat distribution problems in domestic and commercial systems with poor supply of heat or domestic hot water. Expert witness work associated with heating systems. Economic analysis of CHP and how to model its impact on the respective heat and electricity sectors and their networks.

Assistance to other consulting engineers through transfer of proven design's and schematics for fully variable flow systems. Arrangements for the integration of CHP engines using hydraulic principles with boilers so that the low CO2 heat source, the CHP or the electric heat pump leads the heat supply.  This is something that is problematic with many forms of temperature control.


National energy strategy work, Lithuania, Kaliningrad, St Petersburg, Belarus, Ukraine, Crimea. and due diligence work Romania, Kazakhstan.

Our EU funded Ecostiler project www.ecostiler.com.optimises heat network parameters for decarbonising and retrofitting the UK domestic sector. By upgrading the quality of some of the 480 TWh per annum of low grade waste heat, from electricity generation, it can displace part of the gas supply to our domestic sector of 267 TWh per annum.

Workshops in London:
"So you think your boilers are condensing," explaining why many boilers purchased to operate in condensing mode do not, due to the way they are connected to the heating and domestic hot water systems.
"Can you trust your model" explained how Dukes, EUETS, and the EU CHP convention result in heat consumers subsidising electricity consumers.

Energy and Exergy analysis for CHP
Using fundamental first and second laws of thermodynamics and perfect market principles.
First law energy always conserved, Second law reason why heat has to be rejected in thermal power plant to produce power.

Orchard CHP convention
Developed for simpler modelling of CHP avoiding assumption that alternative heat comes only from a boiler and by generating a fuel use per unit of the heat from the CHP allows robust analysis of heat network effects. Extension of principle with recognition that CHP is a virtual heat pump allows a common metric to be used to compare heat from electric heat pumps and heat from CHP through their Coefficient of Performance or COP, a measure of the number of units of heat useful energy per unit of electricity use.

Exergy analytical work
Applied to the EU Carnot method for renewable CHP which differs from the method in the Cogeneration Directive which we analysed as part of our Ecostiler project work.

A review of methodologies analysing electricity and heat production from Combined Heat and Power, CHP, and their signals to heat and electricity sectors. Cross subsidy of electricity sector by heat sector.

IAEE Vilnius 2010 conference. Exergy analysis of electric heat pumps and CHP. Comments on Professor David Mackay's book "Sustainable Energy Without Hot Air"

Harness This Heat review of relative merits retrofit insulation and low CO2 piped heat supply to meet CO2 targets.

CHPQA poor incentive to maximise use of waste heat because incentive is per unit of electricity.

BIEE "Orchard, perfect market, method" for allocation of fuel to electricity and heat in CHP and associated algorithm

Similarity between electric heat pumps and CHP a thermodynamic analysis by Professor Robert Lowe UCL

CO2 Footprint Table